Latest Entries »

my proposal

Effects of computer-assisted writing instruction on students learning

Introduction
In recent studies, there were lots of various investigation about writing instruction and processes. According to these researches it has been found that rather than being aware of the process of writing, teacher are mostly concerned with the final product of writing (Hansen, 1987; Harste et al., 1988). Various proponents of writing made it to a complex phenomena and it causes some kind of barriers in producing a good writing particularly when it is taught through the traditional method to transcribe the thoughts with paper and pencil. Sometimes it is hard for students to transfer their thoughts to paper. According to the findings of various researches in this field, it is found that using computer-assisted writing instruction (CAWI) have solved these problems to some extent.
After developing methods and technologies, all the human complex problems have been solved approximately by inventing computer. They made our life more comfortable and easier in many aspects such as learning which one of the most important aspect of life is.
Exchanging the traditional model of schooling to a technologically based environment caused new expectation in students’ educational system. According to Barron and Goldman (1994), the new technologies are informed by educators as by existing new conceptual tools which cause students to improve their active learning.
Within the field of writing, computer instruction programs improve the students’ organizing of the ideas, outlining and brainstorming. Students can waste less times on writing by using the frameworks without any physical effort. Indeed, they can concentrate on content and organization.
In using CAI for improving the wring skill, Word processors are an example of one of the useful tools for students who have problems with their handwriting. Especially the students with a kind of disabilities sometimes have difficulty with all the requirements for the writing process. It is difficult for them to organize their thoughts and then transferring them long enough to paper. Their handwriting must be neat enough and their spelling and grammar correct enough to convey their message, tasks that they may find difficult.

Word processors are useful tools for students who have problems with their handwriting. Specially the students with a kind of disabilities sometimes have difficulty with all the requirements for the writing process. It is difficult for them to organize their thoughts and then transferring them long enough to paper. Their handwriting must be neat enough and their spelling and grammar correct enough to convey their message, tasks that they may find difficult.

Review of Literature

Different studies have been done according to computer-assisted writing instruction which involves learners. The results have shown that computerized instruction has considerable effects on improving the students writing skills. According to these studies it shows that students are not interested in traditional ways of writing. They should organize their thoughts, write them by the means of pen or pencil on the paper, revise and edit their writing and rewrite the final draft. These procedures waste lots of their time without giving them a proper preferred work. Some of these studies are defined as follow:
These researches show that students become more motivated when they write by the means of computer. They are more willing to write and produce longer texts and revise them extensively (Yau, 1991).
In Sinatra’s (1994) study on fourth grade students, it is stated that the students who used computers in their language art class, could write better than those who use traditional approach to write. In this study which included 260 students, it was seen that students could develop their narrative writing skills by the means of computers. This study also stated that both teachers and students showed positive attitude toward using computer which caused them to improve the writing skills more.

The organization of writing becomes more facilitate when students use computer-assisted program. These facilitations come true by the Flexibilities of word processor which are editing and removing the sentences easily, as well as correcting the spells and structures. As Kelly (2000) stated, the students who cannot write well and have problem with their handwriting, can easily manage their thoughts and ideas to write essays well by using computers.
According to Green’s (2001) observation at Latrobe junior High in Pennsylvania, students who used laptops and technology had a better performance on writing with comparison to the students who followed the traditional ways of handwriting. He stated that students worked with computers collaboratively for revising, editing and printing the drafts. In addition, they were controlled by the teacher through their writing process.
As Palenzuela (2002) said, many researches approved this statement that when students use computer-assisted instruction, they would also improve their knowledge about computing, comprehension, the way of thinking and other academic skills.
As a conclusion of these scholars’ viewpoint about conducting computer-assisted writing instruction in classroom, we can state that computers are influential tools for making the learning process of writing, more easier than traditional approaches, and it also gives the learners a kind of motivation for learning accurately.

Implication
By increasing the Use of computers and different technologies in the classroom, teaching and learning process become more facile. Computers are used as a medium for improving learning in different skills by motivating educators more in the field, making them more interested and prepare a matching between their different learning styles. As an example, computer-assisted instruction makes students more motivated in improving their composition skills by preparing them for the work force.
Using computers as a developed technology in the classroom causes the students not only being taught the course objective, but also making them to feel more comfortable with skills which they want to learn and use it in their lives (Hutchins and Harriss, 1998a).
Also by integrating computers in the classroom, such as using laptop for writing, teacher can make a dynamic learning environment for students. They can manage their writing more easily by entering, editing and download the text to the computer and then print or publish their work (shafer, 1998b).
By a computer-assisted writing program, students feel more comfortable and easy to manage and plan writing. For example, when students use word processor program for writing a text, they can easily handle the ideals and organize their thoughts as well as moving or deleting them without being worry about correcting writing missies in their hand-written paper, and checking the spells easily. This capability motivates the students to improve their written works and also makes the learning process easier for them.
.
As William (2002) stated, computer and its software such as word processing, recognition of speech, word prediction and other software help students when they participate in a well-improved classroom writing programs.

Conclusion
As a conclusion of all the above statements, computers make writers’ job easier when they want to write. It can be also concluded that employing computer-assisted writing instruction in classroom, have a significant effect on students’ academic achievement in learning science. In addition, using computers can also increase the students’ perception of CAI.
Another point which is concluded from this study is that students have a positive insight of learning to write by using computers as a means to facilitate their writing process. According to these statements, CAI is assumed as an influential tool for learning better. As Wang and Sleeman (1993) said, in order that the future of each educator depends on computer knowledge and skills, the integration between computers and curriculum is mostly significant.
Another point to conclude is that Computers make writers more productive in writing process. The various capabilities of computers such as word processors which give writers more freedom in writing and also revising the written text easily lead to this kind of productivity and improve the writing skills of the writers.
All in all, from my own opinion, using computer-assisted writing instruction is a helpful tool for students and makes the learning process easier than the traditional approaches. It also gives students more motivation and interest which are the most important factors to write.

Advertisements

http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-2/computer.htm

http://job.sagepub.com/content/28/2/131.abstract

http://www.springerlink.com/index/RG204148U026TTLK.pdf

teach.valdosta.edu/are/vol1no2/litrev/KarenKelly.pdf

http://www.k8accesscenter.org/training…/computeraided_writing.asp

http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/bibs/writ-ele.html

Trees That Wood

Once there were three trees on a hill in the woods. They were discussing their hopes and dreams when the first tree said, “Someday I hope to be a treasure chest. I could be filled with gold, silver and precious gems. I could be decorated with intricate carving and everyone would see the beauty.”
Then the second tree said, “Someday I will be a mighty ship. I will take kings and queens across the waters and sail to the corners of the world. Everyone will feel safe in me because of the strength of my hull.”
Finally the third tree said, “I want to grow to be the tallest and straightest tree in the forest. People will see me on top of the hill and look up to my branches, and think of the heavens and God and how close to them I am reaching. I will be the greatest tree of all time and people will always remember me.”
After a few years of praying that their dreams would come true, a group of woodsmen came upon the trees. When one came to the first tree he said, “This looks like a strong tree, I think I should be able to sell the wood to a carpenter” … and he began cutting it down. The tree was happy, because he knew that the carpenter would make him into a treasure chest.
At the second tree a woodsman said, “This looks like a strong tree, I should be able to sell it to the shipyard.” The second tree was happy because he knew he was on his way to becoming a mighty ship.
When the woodsmen came upon the third tree, the tree was frightened because he knew that if they cut him down his dreams would not come true. One of the woodsmen said, “I don’t need anything special from my tree so I’ll take this one”, and he cut it down.
When the first tree arrived at the carpenters, he was made into a feed box for animals. He was then placed in a barn and filled with hay. This was not at all what he had prayed for. The second tree was cut and made into a small fishing boat. His dreams of being a mighty ship and carrying kings had come to an end. The third tree was cut into large pieces and left alone in the dark. The years went by, and the trees forgot about their dreams.
Then one day, a man and woman came to the barn. She gave birth and they placed the baby in the hay in the feed box that was made from the first tree. The man wished that he could have made a crib for the baby, but this manger would have to do. The tree could feel the importance of this event and knew that it had held the greatest treasure of all time. Years later, a group of men got in the fishing boat made from the second tree. One of them was tired and went to sleep. While they were out on the water, a great storm arose and the tree didn’t think it was strong enough to keep the men safe. The men woke the sleeping man, and he stood and said “Peace” and the storm stopped. At this time, the tree knew that it had carried the King of Kings in its boat.
Finally, someone came and got the third tree. It was carried through the streets as the people mocked the man who was carrying it. When they came to a stop, the man was nailed to the tree and raised in the air to die at the top of a hill. When Sunday came, the tree came to realize that it was strong enough to stand at the top of the hill and be as close to God as was possible, because Jesus had been crucified on it.
The moral of this story is that when things don’t seem to be going your way, always know that God has a plan for you. If you place your trust in Him, He will give you great gifts. Each of the trees got what they wanted, just not in the way they had imagined. We don’t always know what God’s plans are for us. We just know that His ways are not our ways, but His ways are always best.
http://www.indianchild.com/short_stories.htm

Multiple choice questions.
Answer the following questions by choosing the best answer from the options provided.

1. What did the first tree hope to be?
A. He hoped to be a ship ( to take the kings and queens across the waters)
B. he hoped to be a treasure chest. (To be filled with gold, silver and precious gems.)
C. he hoped to be the tallest and straightest tree in the forest. ( To be seen on top of the hill and being close to heavens and God.)
D. he hoped to be a feed box for animals. (Being placed in a barn and filled with hay.)

2. What did the second tree hope to be?
A. He hoped to be a small fishing boat. (To take the fisher to water)
B. He hoped to be a ship ( to take the kings and queens across the waters)
C. He hoped To be died at the top of a hill. (To stand at the top of the hill and be close to God)
D. He hoped to be sold to a carpenter. (The carpenter would ma make him into a treasure chest).

3. Where were the three trees?
A. They were in the carpenter. (To be cut to little pieces).
B. They were in a barn. (To make them to feed boxes)
C. They were on a hill in the woods. (Trees were in the forest.)
D. They were in the street. (To be a shadow for passengers.)

4. What happened finally to the third tree?
A. It was left alone in the dark. ( It was at the corner of the street).
B. It became a treasure chest. ( It was filled with gold and silver.)
C. It remained in the forest without being cut. ( tallest and straightest tree in the forest.)
D. It was nailed to the tree and raised in the air. (It was died at the top of a hill.)

5. What is the main message of the story?
A. To be the tallest and straightest. (Being closer to heavens and God )
B. Always know that God has the best plan for you. ( when things don’t seem to be going your way.)
C. Each of the trees got what they wanted. (In different way that they had imagined.)
D. Being strong enough strong enough to stand at the top of the hill. (because Jesus had been crucified on it.)

Matching
Match the words in column A to its meaning in column B

Treasure chest Something which is placed in a barn and filled with hay
Feed box The baby is placed on it
carpenter Something which can be filled with gold, silver and precious gems
crib Everyone will feel safe in it because of the strength of it’s hull
ship Someone who cuts the wood

True and False Questions

Read the following statement and decide whether the statement given is true or false.
1. the second tree said, “Someday I hope to be a treasure chest. I could be filled with gold, silver and precious gems.
2. At the third tree a woodsman said, “This looks like a strong tree, I should be able to sell it to the shipyard.”
3. one day, a man and woman came to the barn. She gave birth and they placed the baby in the hay in the feed box that was made from the first tree.
4. Years later, a group of men got in the fishing boat made from the first tree. One of them was tired and went to sleep. While they were out on the water, a great storm arose and the tree didn’t think it was strong enough to keep the men safe.
5. The moral of this story is that when things don’t seem to be going your way, always know that God has a plan for you.

Jumbled up Sentences.
Using the words given below, arrange them in a correct order to form a complete and grammatical sentence.
1. Discussing were they hopes and dreams their
2. Across take the waters will kings and queen I.
3. Prayed what he for had this at all not was.
4. Always God’s don’t we us for know plans what are.
5. Hope chest someday be I treasure a to.

Cloze Passage Questions
Fill in the blanks with correct words.

After a few years of praying that their dreams would come true, a group of woodsmen came upon the trees. When one came to the first tree he said, “This looks like a strong tree, I think I should be able to sell the wood to a carpenter” … and he began cutting it down. The tree was happy, because he knew that the carpenter would make him into a treasure chest.
At the second tree a woodsman said, “This looks like a strong tree, I should be able to sell it to the shipyard.” The second tree was happy because he knew he was on his way to becoming a mighty ship.
Finally, someone came and got the third tree. It was carried through the streets as the people mocked the man who was carrying it. When they came to a stop, the man was nailed to the tree and raised in the air to die at the top of a hill. When Sunday came, the tree came to realize that it was strong enough to stand at the top of the hill and be as close to God as was possible, because Jesus had been crucified on it.

Hello world!

Welcome to my blog, i hope you enjoy it.